Ellichpur Subdivision.-Area 2,605 square miles, population 297,403, land revenue Rs. 12,77,502, consisting of the Ellichpur, Daryapur and Melghat taluks, was from 1867 to 1905 a separate District of the Berar administration. It is now held by a Subdivisional Officer and Magistrate who has full control over the magisterial and revenue staff; there are also a Subdivisional Assistant or Deputy Superintendent of Police, and Public Works and Medical Subdivisional officers, the latter having charge of a civil hospital. A Subordinate Judge and two munsiffs are stationed at Ellichpur, and a Subordinate Judge and a munsiff at Daryapur; there is also a joint Deputy Educational Inspector. The Subdivision contains two Municipalities (Ellichpur City 26,082 and Ellichpur Civil Station 10,410) and 5 other towns namely Anjangaon (8,783 with Surji 11,881), Shirasgaon Kasba (6,537), Karasgaon (7,456), Chandur Bazar (5,208) and Daryapur (4,389 or with Wanosa 5,304). The headquarters of the Subdivision are at Ellichpur Civil Station. For further detail reference should be made to the sections on Ellichpur, Daryapur and Melghat taluks.
Ellichpur Taluk.-Formerly the headquarters taluk of
the Ellichpur District but since August
1905 a taluk of the Amraoti District
lying between 21°9 and 21°24 N. and 77°23 and 77°53 E.
with an area of 469 square miles. The taluk contains 311
villages and towns of which 7 are jagir. It lies in the
Payanghat at the foot of the Satpura hills and is bounded on the
north by the Melghat taluk and the Betul District of the
Central Provinces; on the west by the Daryapur taluk, the
Amraoti and Morsi taluks form the boundary on the south and
east. The taluk is compact in shape, averaging 24 miles from
east to west by about 16 miles from north to south and is the smallest of all the taluks in point of size. The face of the country is perfectly level, although here and there deeply indented by the rivers and freshets that find their way down from the Satpura hills. The best camping grounds in the District are here. The soils here are very fertile, quite equal to those in Akot and Daryapur. In spite of the great demand for wood fuel of recent years, many parts of the taluk are still well wooded, and the prospect for instance in the neighbourhood of Pathrot or of Brahmanwada is an extremely pleasing one. There is scarcely a village which cannot boast its grove of trees, and the general prosperity and high standard of cultivation prevailing afford a satisfaction to the eye which verges on monotony. Water in many places lies close to the surface and maintains a certain amount of moisture in the soil, by which the country has been enabled to weather the severe famines of the last decade with comparative success. The climate in the greater part of the taluk is healthy throughout the year, though the heat is very trying in April and May; the villages in the north of the taluk lying under the hills are feverish during the last three months of the year. The principal rivers which drain the taluk are the Chandrabhaga and the Purna. The banks of both are too high to make irrigation practicable unless very large works were erected for which again the supply of water would not suffice. Such as they are, however, they are a great boon to the country as the water is good and lasts throughout the hot season. The Sarpan, a tributary of the Chandrabhaga, flows past the city of Ellichpur and formerly supplied the city with water by an aqueduct. There is an old and ruined drain of similar construction known as the "Satbudki," or seven wells, near the village of Datura, which was formerly used for the irrigation of garden lands in the neighbourhood. Legend connects its origin with the supply of water to the now empty tank of the Hauz Katora.
The population of the taluk in 1901 was 146,035 persons
or 18 per cent, of that of the District.
In 1891, the population was 146,215,
and in 1881, 148,041. Thus for the twenty years ending
1901 there has been a steady but slight falling-off in the
population; in the first census period it was 1.2 per cent, and
in the second only o.1 per cent. Thus between 1891 and 1901 the decrease was not only less than in any other taluk but less than in Ellichpur itself during the previous decade, a striking proof of the richness of the country, and of its power of resistance in bad times. In the original Settlement Report it was pointed out that the population was more than the land could fairly bear, and emigration to less cultivated tracts was predicted. Though we need not agree with the Settlement Officer that Ellichpur is incapable of supporting a larger population than it had forty years ago, yet it is obvious that with the pressure of population on the soil so much greater than it is in neighbouring tracts scarcely less fertile, the opening up of communications was bound to bring a decrease; and such has been the case both in Ellichpur and Daryapur. The density of the population is 311 per square mile, being the highest figure of all the taluks in Berar; the density of the rural population is 193 persons to a square mile. Cultivation has practically reached its utmost extent, only 113 acres remaining available for the purpose and not yet taken up. The taluk contains the 5 towns of Ellichpur, Paratwada, Sirasgaon, Chandur Bazar and Karasgaon, and 306 villages of which 77 are uninhabited [See note, p. 363.] according to village lists; 38.14 per cent, of the population live in towns and 61.86 per cent. live in villages. Besides the above towns the taluk contained, three villages which had more than 2,000 persons in 1901: Asadpur, Brahmanwada Thadi and Sirasgaon Bund. There were also 16 villages whose population exceeds 1,000 persons.
The culture of the ground is carried on somewhat more carefully here than in
Amraoti, in consequence perhaps of the greater value of the land, but the area under irrigation is none the less small in extent. The principal crops grown are juari, cotton, tur and wheat. At the original settlement juari occupied 39 per cent., cotton 40 per cent., tur 7 per cent, and wheat 3 per cent, of the cultivated area. At the revision settlement (1893-97) the total Government occupied land was 241,327 acres. Of this juari occupied 96,009 acres or 38.1 percent, cotton 107,101 acres or 42.4 per cent, wheat 11,568 acres
or 4.6 per cent, and tur 9,584 acres or 3.8 per cent. As usual in the black soil plains the chief crop cultivated is cotton and it had gained by about 2½ per cent, while juari, the staple food grain of the people, had lost by about 1 per cent. These two crops account for four-fifths of the total area leaving one-fifth for other crops. The area devoted to rabi cultivation was only 9 per cent., more than half of this being occupied by wheat. In a large extent of land bordering on the hilly country to the north, cotton and juari are the only crops grown, the soil being too shallow to retain sufficient moisture for rabi cultivation. In 1906-07 the total village area excluding State forest was 279,383 acres. Of this 257,479 acres or 92 per cent, were occupied for cultivation. Out of this the total cropped area was 248,296 acres, there being no area under double crop. The area under cotton has much increased since revision settlement, and in this year it occupied 145,851 acres or about 59 per cent, of the total cropped area. The area under juari has fallen, being only 64,035 acres or about 26 per cent., while the area under wheat was 9,585 acres or about 4 per cent., and tur 16,395 acres or about 7 per cent, of the cropped area. The irrigated area was only 1,638 acres during the year.
The 304 Government villages which form the Ellichpur
taluk were, at the original settlement,
divided into three groups and settled with maximum dry crop standard acreage rates varying from R. 1-12 to Rs. 2-4-0 The average rate per acre cultivated however varied from R. 1-7-3 to R. 1-14-3. The principles adopted in grouping the villages depended upon their proximity to the large bazar towns and villages for the first and second class groups, while in the third class were placed the more remote villages and some lying within the spurs of the hills and having a bad climate, although within easy reach of the small bazars. At the revision settlement the facilities for communication were found to have rendered the villages independent of the larger market towns and hence the whole of the villages of the taluk were thrown into one group as had
been done with the Daryapur taluk, and the rate sanctioned and imposed on
Daryapur, viz. Rs. 2-12, was fixed.
At the time of the revision settlement the demand on the Government area of 241,262 acres according to former survey was Rs. 4,05,217, giving an incidence of R. 1-1O-1O per acre, while at the revision settlement the assessment on the occupied area of 241,327 acres according to revision survey was increased to Rs. 5,28,486 giving an incidence of Rs. 2-3-1 per acre. The increase in revenue thus amounts to Rs. 1,23,269 being 30.4 per cent, in excess of the previous demand. The demand on account of land revenue including cesses in 1907-08 was Rs. 5,59,131 while the amount actually collected according to treasury figures during the year was
For purposes of land records the taluk has been divided
into three Circle Inspectors' circles
with headquarters at Sirasgaon Kasba, Pathrot and Ellichpur. It constitutes with the Melghat a single police circle under one Inspector and contains 5 Station-houses, each under a Sub-Inspector at Ellichpur, Chandur Bazar, Pathrot, Sirasgaon Kasba and Assegaon.
Ellichpur City.-The headquarters of the Ellichpur talukand former capital of Berar, is situated in 210 16 N. and770 33 E. about 1200 feet above sea-level. It lies rather more than 30 miles to the north-west of Amraoti and has an area of 8 square miles and a population of 26,082 persons. In 1891 the figure was 26,636; in 1881, 26,728, and in 1867, 27,782, so that there has been a fall of 6 per cent, in 34 years, and the city, which formerly took the first place in Berar now stands only third on the list. Further decadence only a radical change in the economic conditions, such as the introduction of a railway (which has been mooted,) can hinder, and even in that event it is possible that the Civil station with its timber market, rather than the city would reap the chief benefit.
Ellichpur City Municipality was created in July 1869 and
the Committee to-day has twenty-four
members, all nominated by Government. The average annual receipts and expenditure for the sixteen years ending 1906-07 were respectively Rs. 20,174 and Rs. 19,748. In 1907-08 the income was Rs. 20,647 derived mainly from taxes (Rs. 14,083), from fees and
municipal property (Rs. 5,315) and from grants (Rs. 1,117).
The incidence of income per head of population was
R. 0-12-8, and of taxation R. 0-8-8. The expenditure
during the same year amounted to Rs. 29,029, the principal
heads being drainage, sanitation, roads, conservancy, public
instruction, and establishment charges. The taxes are
direct and, as elsewhere in Berar, the Committee appears to
find very great difficulty in its collections. There is a Bench
of Magistrates with second and third class powers.
No works have been undertaken in modern times for the
supply of water which is obtained by
the people from wells and from the
rivers Sirpan and Bichan, which flow through the town.
There is still in existence though no longer in working order
an underground conduit of earthen pipes by which the oldest
quarter of the town (that between the Dulla Darwaza and the
Barkul gate) was formerly supplied with water from the
Bichan, that river having been dammed at a spot above the
city in order to make a reservoir. It is thought that these
waterworks which were constructed in the reign of Ahmad
Shah Wali Bahmani (A.H. 829, A.D. 1425) could be
restored at small cost, and the question is now under discussion
in the municipality.
Trade and manufactures.
In the high day of its prosperity, with a lavish court in its midst, Ellichpur was the importantcentre of cotton and silk manufactures, and had a reputation also for woodcarving and stone work which is borne out by the remains. To-day the latter industry is almost extinct, and those of weaving and dyeing, though their followers are still numerous, are steadily on the decline. The carpets made here though rough are of a strong texture and find a ready sale all over the District; khadis,rumals,pagris and patkas,saris with silk borders and susis are also produced, but the trade is in a bad way, for the earnings of a Koshti do not exceed those of an unskilled workman, and his goods are being steadily ousted from the market by those of the power-loom. The
al dyeing of Ellichpur was formerly famous, but this also is on the wane. The castes connected with these industries are the first to exhibit signs of distress in times of scarcity and require the promptest attention, To-day the most
important industry as elsewhere in Berar is that of raw cotton,
the income and expenditure of the cotton market in 1907-08
being Rs. 1,204 and Rs. 672 respectively. Sooner or later
almost all the cotton finds its way to Amraoti, and the traffic
over the high road to that place during the season is enormous,
for, though there are 3 ginning and one pressing factory in
Ellichpur employing in all some 380 persons, most of the
cotton is taken to Amraoti in the raw state, and dealt with there.
In the village lists and settlement papers Ellichpur appears
as divided into eleven khels or munds, each of which bears a Hindu name,
being that of the family holding the patelki, e.g. Khel Japmali,
Khel Trimbak Narayan, and the like. The history however of
Ellichpur is distinctly Muhammadan, and this is reflected as
one might expect in the nomenclature of the place. The town
was at one time surrounded by 54 puras or suburbs, of which
about 35 exist at the present day, and the names of nearly all
are of Musalman origin. Some are within and some outside
municipal limits; a few of the most important are Shamastpura formed by Shamast Khan in 1724, Sultanpura by Sultan
Khan about the same time, Anwarpura named after Anwar
Khatun, Salabat Khan's wife, Namdar Ganj, Nasibpura,
Abbaspura, Jivanpura, and Rikabah, the last-named being the
headquarters of a bazar formed by Salabat Khan to accompany
him on his military expeditions. There is no doubt that
Ellichpur was in the past a very large and prosperous city,
and it is said at one time to have contained 40,000 houses. Its
prosperity depended upon two things, the presence of the
court and the position of the city at one end of what must
always have been a considerable, if not one of the most
important, trade routes through the hills to Northern India.
The court has vanished and the railway has diverted all trade
elsewhere: the importance of Ellichpur is daily declining and
its interests are mainly of the past.
The history of the city is the history of Berar. It is given
in full in Chapter II., and there is no
need to repeat it here.[ Since that chapter was written R. B. Hiralal has found in Betul district a
copper plate inscription in which the town of Achalpur (identified by him as Ellichpur) is mentioned, and a similar reference occurs in the Prakrit literature of the Jains; see Chapter II. section 28,] The town is
full of old buildings of greater or less importance, which bear testimony to its fortunes under different rulers. Its earliest Muhammadan invaders are commemorated fitly enough in the bare but stately Idgah of Sultan Imad-ul-Mulk (A.D. 1347), the nephew of Muhammad Tughlak, [So says local tradition which has dignified him with the title of " Sultan."] in the Jami Masjid dating from the same era (but subsequently restored by Ali Mardan Khan in the time of Aurangzeb), and in the Bharkul gate. This is a massive erection of stone divided into outer and inner wards and leading into the still older mud fort which dates from Hindu times. The gate has many carved stones in it, taken perhaps from some pillaged temple, and from its situation in the middle of the city is a favourite 'coldharbour' in the hot weather. From about the same period must date the Hauz Katora, a ruined octagonal tower of brick, mortar and sandstone, about two miles to the west of Ellichpur. The architecture of it is in the style known as Pathan, and the tower stands in the midst of a circular tank whose diameter is about 100 yards and depth about 15 feet. The tower stands 81 feet in height and has three stories; it is said that a fourth and fifth were removed by one of the Nawabs to provide materials for his own palace. The minars were in ruins in the time of Akbar. To-day the tank is nearly empty and the whole edifice long past repair.
The Bahman Shah dynasty and their tarafdars of Berar have left but little in the way of memorial. To the Bahmanis we owe the water-course already mentioned, the Darus Shafa Masjid (A.D. 1340) and one or two unimportant minor buildings. From the same period dates the most famous of all the Ellichpur antiquities, the tomb of Dulha Shah Abdul Rahman Ghazi Ghaznavi. The legend tells of a wandering Muhammadan fakir who was maltreated by Raja II of Ellichpur and fled to Ghazni to appeal for help. The great Mahmud's nephew was celebrating his bridal when the holy man arrived: but he left the feast to lead a jihad from beyond the Himalayas to the punishment of the blasphemous king and died fighting as a good Muslim should amid untold
slaughter of the infidel; cutting off, we are even told, his own head to make the victory secure. To-day Hindus as well as Muhammadans pay homage at his tomb, and it would be little short of atheism in Ellichpur to hint a doubt of his ever having existed. The buildings are picturesquely situated on the north-easterly bank of the Bichan about one mile from the city and from a distance look almost imposing with the two great archways, the small lantern window overhanging the river and a cluster of white domes behind. On closer scrutiny they are very disappointing: the apparent stone lace work is merely a mass of bricks and tiles placed edgeways and whitewashed; the arches have been daubed over in a variety of hideous colours by the illiterate and filthy mujawirs who attend the place; and the whole effect is indescribably petty. Passing in through the large gate one finds a spacious courtyard containing the graves of many forgotten worthies small and great. There is one in particular which has some very creditable stone tracery. Close at hand on the right lie the houses of the attendants and on the left a small masjid built originally by Subahdar Miyan Manzur, two hundred years ago, but restored by Ghulam Husain the last of the Nawabs. Through this one enters the holy of holies, the innermost court wherein are the resting places of the Ghazi himself and of his mother Malika-i-Jahan. These are said to have been erected by Safdar Khan Sistani, the lieutenant of Ala-ud-din Hasan, the first Bahmani Shah. They are covered with a mass of tawdry colours and are in no way interesting; the silver doors which they possessed forty years ago have been stolen, and though on one occasion recovered by the police have since vanished. The largest enclosure of all is surrounded by a sandstone wall built by the brothers Raghuji and Madhuji Bhonsla of Nagpur in alternate thankoffering for their successes over one another. The east gate built by Madhuji is the only erection in the whole crowd of buildings with any pretension to architectural beauty. It has a flight of stone steps on either side leading to a broad barahdari on top. Half way up each flight is a small domed halting place. The barahdari has six windows and two doors and is surmounted by four small minors. Each gate of the wall has a Persian inscription commemorating its builder.
Just outside the Dargah two hundred yards from the west bank of the Bichan lies a small but elegant cylindrical sandstone dome supported upon white marble pillars: it is commonly known as the Moni Joni Gumbaz and omnemorates the infant daughters of Ahmad Shah Wall's Vazir who died here.
After the fall of the Bahmani dynasty, the architectural history of Ellichpur is a blank for several hundred years. The Imad Shahi rulers, though they hold the proud position of having been the only independent kings of Berar, were in truth but insecurely seated on a tottering throne. Gawilgarh, with its strong walls and precipitous approaches, was a capital far more to their liking than the ill-defended Ellichpur, and they have left no memorial. The Nizam Shahs were busy elsewhere, and the stir and turmoil of the Mughal invasions of the Deccan left but little time for building. A few relics remain of the reigns of Akbar and Alamgir; of the former is the well or low-level reservoir known as Mamdal Shah and said to have been built by Man Singh, Raja of Jaipur. It has a platform where its princely owner could sit and be cool in the hot weather and niches opposite for the musicians to make him merry: but the water is so infested with mosquitoes that it is difficult to believe anyone can really have found pleasure in such an entertainment, Alamgir is represented by the Chauk Masjid and a smaller mosque both built by Shayasta Khan or Mirza Beg Khan as he is also called, by the municipal office formerly a Diwan Khana, and by the restoration of the Jami Masjid. But the domes of the last-named edifice have long since fallen in and it looks again for the pious patron to renew it. Khan-i-Zaman Khan's aspirations are mentioned elsewhere (v. Khanzamanagar).
But the most princely of all the dynasties that have ruled in Ellichpur was that of the Nawabs of Sultan Khan's house, and though they were themselves the subordinates of the Nizam of Hyderabad they have done more to beautify the city than all previous dynasties combined. In their time too private munificence, whether that of other rulers such as Madhuji Bhonsla or of private persons, seems to have been turned to building and to such efforts we owe the Hindu temples of Balaji and Ramchandra and the dome of Shah
Ismail Fakir. Sultan Khan, the first of this dynasty, built about 1754 the fort at Sultanpura, a strong edifice of sandstone on the south bank of the Sarpan river. The approach is covered by a flanking wall and the outer gate stands at the head of a steep approach. The fort was used in the early days of British administration as a jail, and is still though much dilapidated a place of considerable strength. Sultan Khan's, son was Ismail Khan, the greatest of the Nawabs, whose lofty ideas are clearly expressed in the strong sandstone wall which he built round the city. To-day much of it has crumbled away but enough remains to show that the prince regarded beauty as well as strength. The wall is studded with carved stones (said to have been taken from the ruined Jain temples of Raja 11 though their new appearance gives the lie to this), its gates are richly ornamented, and one at least of its khirkis or foot-gates, that just north of the Dulha Darwaza, is extremely graceful. To the same ruler and his sons Bahlol and Salabat Khan we owe the commencement of the Nawab Mahal. It consists of a multiplicity of buildings of which many have fallen into decay. The four great courtyards with their deep verandahs and beautiful carving both in wood and stone remain. Two of them are still used as dwelling houses by the representatives of the family, and two are lent to Government for schools, Ghulam Hasain Khan, the last of the line, built a large Imambara; but the most beautiful of all the buildings in Ellichpur is the cemetery of the Nawabs in Sharmastpura which contains a stately dome of Ismail Khan and various small buildings, and some very fine jali stone lattice work. The whole is surrounded by a strong wall with two lofty gateways. Close by is a small mosque and cemetery, dating from older times which also contains one or. two handsome tombs. All the Nawabs were fond of gardening, and Ellichpur is surrounded by the relics of many handsome gardens. Perhaps the finest is the Namdar Bag, not far from Dulha Rahman's Dargah: it is surrounded by a wall and has a magnificent well for irrigation while one or two fine trees are still standing. Probably it could still be restored at small cost, and it would be worth restoration: at present the ground is occupied by a cotton gin. Finally, mention should be made of the graves of bygone English
soldiers at Ellichpur. Just outside the north wall a marble slab commemorates Thomas Drew, "who for many years commanded a Brigade in the service of Salabut Khan Bahadur, Nawab of Ellichpur." He died in 1815. Close to the Municipal office are buried Lieut.-Colonel Kenny and another who died in Wellesley's assault on Gawilgarh, and beside the Idgah lie Major Lane and Captain Grant, who succeeded Major Drew in the command just mentioned; the marble slabs of these last four have long since been filched from the masonry and are probably being used as curry stones in some frugal cultivator's home.
Ellichpur Civil Station.-Also called Paratwada and EllichpurCantonment, is situated at a height of 1268 feet above sea-level, in 21°18' N. and 77°34' E. and lies 32 miles north-west of Amraoti and two miles north of Ellichpur City. It is connected with Amraoti by a metalled high road, and with Chikalda and the Betul border by muram roads. There is a District Board muram road to Anjangaon Surji (16 miles) and another to Chandur Bazar (14 miles). The area within municipal limits is 112 acres 6½gunthas, or roughly two square miles, and the population in 1901, when there were still troops stationed here, was 10,410 as against 9003 in 1891, 9445 in 1881, and 11,269 in 1867. The figures for 1901 include 7,125 Hindus, 3,055 Musalmans, 52 Jains, 124 Christians and 54 others. Probably the total population to-day is about eight thousand. Paratwada is the headquarters of the Ellichpur Subdivision.
The municipality was established here in 1893, and the
committee consists of 10 members
all nominated by Government with the Subdivisional Officer for Chairman. During the fourteen years ending 1906-07, the average annual receipts and expenditure were Rs. 14,087 and Rs. 13.314 respectively; and in 1907-08, Rs. 18,405 and Rs. 14,843; the main sources of income being taxes Rs. 5,377, fees and municipal property Rs. 10,538, and grants Rs. 2,306. The incidence of income per head of population was Rs. 2-4-3, and of taxation R. 0-10-7. The chief heads of expenditure have been sanitation and conservancy; there is no regular system of
water-supply, but water is drawn from wells which are many and good.
Timber brought in from the Melghat to the bazar on
Thursdays is by far the most important article of trade, and the weekly sales have an estimated value of Rs. 6,000, cattle being the next most important item in the bazar and being calculated at Rs. 3,000 weekly. The right to collect cess in the bazar in 1909-1910 was sold for Rs. 5,350. Paratwada contains two ginning factories and one cotton press; it also contained a match factory. The latter unfortunately had to suspend work, but has found a new field in the manufacture of fireworks.
Paratwada is quite a modern town, its existence being
due to its selection as a military
station when Salabat Khan's Reformed Troops were converted into the Ellichpur Brigade and made a part of the Hyderabad Contingent. It was in 1823 according to the NurulBerar that the cantonment was formed, Captain Sayer being at that time Commandant, and the station at Jaipur Kothli was in the same year abandoned. At one time, a whole brigade with cavalry, artillery and infantry was stationed here, and Meadows Taylor in 1840 notes that it was particularly the Brigadier's privilege to spend his summers at Chikalda, but on various occasions since the Assignment the numbers were reduced, and in 1903 only one battalion of infantry was left to evacuate the place. The old military buildings which are valued at Rs. 2,11,782, consist of infantry and artillery lines with a military hospital and are now lying vacant.
Paratwada is divided by the river Bichan into two parts.
To the north-east lies the basti and
to the south-west the Civil Station or Cantonment, the two being joined by bridges, one near the post office on the Chikalda road, and the other close to the "Khuni Bungalow" as the Subdivisional Officer's bungalow for some unknown reason is called. The Circuit House or Lal Bungalow lies in an open space a few hundred yards,to the north of the town. The basti is divided into seven puras or quarters named 'Chhota Bazar,' ' Motha Bazar,' ' Moglai Bazar,' ' Gatarmalpura,' ' Brahman line' and 'Pensionpura.' Its chief buildings are a native club with a tennis court and a billiard table, a town hall containing the municipal offices and a library, Anglo-Marathi and Urdu schools, and a Marathi girls' school, four sarais, and the civil and former military hospitals. There are also two temples to Shri Datta and Shri Vitthal and a small theatre owned by Kisanlal Motilal. On the north side of the town is an open space provided with chabutras for the weekly bazar, and beyond this lies the parade ground. The Civil Station is a well-laid out area with broad roads and excellent bungalows and public offices. Though now wearing a somewhat deserted appearance since its reduction at one stroke from the headquarters of a District and a military centre to the suburb of a second class provincial town, it is still a picturesque place, being well shaded with splendid trees, and stocked with flower gardens and greenery. No statistics exist as to the climate, but it is generally held to be somewhat cooler than Amraoti in the cold weather, and warmer in the summer, both on account of its proximity to the hills and of the trees which prevent the wind. In the rains the same causes, together with the proximity of the river, make it very damp and unpleasant. In this portion of the town lie, besides the military lines, the site of the weekly bazar and the former District Offices, including the buildings now occupied by the Subdivisional Officer, and the Subordinate Judge, a police cutcherry now used as a rest house and the old District jail, part of which is in occupation by the police. The station has both an Anglican church and a Roman Catholic church; there is a joint cemetery. Paratwada is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Mission to the Dheds and of the Korku and Central India Hill Mission. The latter body manages an orphanage and industrial school at Khudawandpur, and a leper asylum at Kotharia three miles away, and both of these institutions are supported by Government.